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Recent and Notable Projects
Current LTA Projects:C1701 Caberra MRT Station
- Project Safety Review
- Fire and Life Safety
T210 Mayflower MRT Station
- Fire and Life Safety
E1016 ERL Bus and Rail Depot
- Peer Review
Singapore Polytechnic - Atrium Natural VentilationThe facility made use of natural ventilation to exhaust the smoke and provide fresh air to the building. The floors are all linked via a number of atrium voids. The smoke is dispersed to the outside with the aid of skylights and louvers at the top.
Ngee Ann Polytechnic - Atrium Natural VentilationThe Ngee Ann Poly Block 51 consists of classrooms, lecture theatres, seating areas and food court. It has a central atrium linking all floors and is connected by voids to the external facade. The top roof skylight has perforated louvers around all the sides. The facade around the building perimeter is a perforated metal sheet with different sized openings located at various heights. A CFD study of the atrium natural ventilation scheme was undertaken to show that the smoke can adequately disperse to the outside during a fire.
City Link Mall - Smoke Control System DesignThe City Link Mall is a corridor based underground mall which comprises of three smoke zones at different elevations. The entireh mall is protected by automatic sprinklers. CFD fire/smoke simulations were carried out to assess the adequacy of the current smoke control system. A new Performance-Based Engineered Smoke Control System was proposed to address the limited ceiling height in meeting with the Code Objectives.
Tai Seng Depot Facility - Smoke Purging System DesignA reversible smoke purging system was designed for the train depot facility which extends over 300m long. Fire scenarios at different locations were tested to qualify the effectiveness and efficiency of the reversible smoke purging system, in meeting with the design objectives.
32 EWL & NSL Aboveground MRT Stations - Fire Safety AssessmentThe smoke control strategy for the existing aboveground MRT stations in the East-West Line and North-South Line is by natural ventilation only. Various CFD tests were done for a single train carriage fire to assess the adequacy of safe egress for the passengers under the existing station conditions.
C2107 Thomson Line - Smoke Control System Design and Thermal Comfort StudyCFD simulations were done to optimize the design and location of the smoke extraction systems to avoid the occurrence of smoke recirculating from the exhausting ventilation shafts to the various openings and entrances of the stations. The air-conditioning system was also studied using CFD analysis to assess the air temperature and velocity distributions to meet thermal comfort requirements for the passengers.
C9181C Downtown Line Stage C (6 stations and tunnels) - Fire and Life Safety AssessmentFire and Life Safety (FLS) reports were prepared to provide an overview of the overall fire and life safety strategy. It includes the means of egress from the station, the active and passive fire safety systems implemented and accessibility for the fire fighting services. Project Safety Review (PSR) reports were also prepared to ensure that the project has systematically identified, mitigated and tracked major civil hazards that may arise due to the surrounding environment, effect of construction activities to adjacent structures and utilities and subsequent maintenance activities.
Resort World, Sentosa - Monorail TunnelA CFD fire simulation was undertaken for the tunnel, at 150m long with a height of 13.5m and width of 16m, to demonstrate that additional smoke management provisions would not be required in the event of a fire within the tunnel.
C1590 EWL Jurong East StationSimulation of smoke spread within the station space for various fire scenarios to determine tenability requirements for a performance based determination of egress times and hence the adequacy of the exit provisions for the station.
Changi Airport - Terminal 1 UpgradeDeveloped performance based smoke control design for large open spaces in the expansion of Terminal 1. Existing terminal had no smoke control provisions. The fire engineered smoke control alternative permitted the use of open spaces and significantly reduced the prescriptive smoke extraction requirements whilst assuring the fire and life safety levels for the airport are not compromised.
Asia Centre - City Room PodiumThe City Room is a large W-shaped atrium (joining of a series of voids) measuring approximately 180m x 90m x 20m, wrapping around a pair of 40 storey office towers. The voids which form the W-shaped atrium rises up to about 18-21m high, the height of the truss being about 3m deep, i.e. from 18m to 21m. The smoke management for the City Room has been designed to be naturally ventilated. The internal space was modelled to ensure that the provision of natural ventilation louvers and skylights in the roof (allowing partial natural solar lighting), coupled with the natural airflow from the external wind was sufficient to not result in dead or 'hot' spots within the space.
Changi Airport - West Outdoor DeckAssessed the thermal comfort of an outdoor deck, where a large portion of the area was shielded from the sun using canopies. The impact of the wind and the surrounding buildings were accounted for, including the prevailing directions of the wind. Fans were also simulated to assist with improvements to thermal comfort.
One City - Phase 2 Podium, Kuala LumpurThe Phase 2 podium comprises an internal space resembling a partially enclosed atrium within a 12 storey mixed-use development measuring approximately 100m × 250m × 76m (WLH). The podium is naturally ventilated and is connected to the outside via vertical gaps on the side and end walls. The internal space was simulated to determine the minimum dimensions of the gaps that will provide sufficient ventilation to achieve acceptable levels of thermal comfort for the users of the podium.
Tradewinds, Kuala LumpurMixed development comprising of retail, office, hotel, serviced apartments and medical center. It also has a 6 level basement carpark. The development is divided into 4 towers built above a podium. A performance based assessment of radiant heat flux by point source method and Computational Fluid Dynamics modelling was conducted for the Tradewinds Tower to demonstrate and verify the adequacy of the proposed separation distance in achieving the performance objectives for fire safety compliance.
Tuas West Depot Stations
The curved roof which shielded the station allowed hot air to be trapped. The requirements for additional roof vents were studied over and above the wall louvers to provide adequate thermal comfort to the passengers utilizing the elevated dual platform station.
Rolls-Royce - Red Dot FacilityThe Red Dot Facility is an Industrial Development comprising a single storey assembly building with ancillary facilities and a 3-storey research/development/administration building with canteen. The proposed facility measures approximately 140m × 112m. The roof is curved (on one plane only) along the longer dimension such that the eave height begins at 16m and rises up to 22.7m at the centre. A preliminary study was undertaken to demonstrate viability of a proposed smoke management strategy to minimize the number of make-up air points and extraction fans with only a single run of ductwork.
Paradigm, Kelana Jaya - Basement Level Carpark, Kuala LumpurThe underground carpark levels comprise of Basement 1 to 2, each measuring 37,000 m² of uncompartmented floor area and volume of 159,100m³, which exceeded the size limits for compartmentation. An engineered smoke control system using virtual zones was designed, complementing the preferred ventilation shaft layout, and demonstrated that the smoke and heat could be successfully contained without requiring fire or smoke compartmentation.
Hatten City, Melaka Tengah, Melaka
The project is a mix-development comprises of a 13 storey retails, 2 hotel towers and 2 service apartment towers. The floor plate area of the large retail space is approximately 13,000 m², without fire compartment. There are 3 voids within the large retail space are without fire compartment. This is solved using performance based design.
Basement Carpark, Tunnel & Driveway beneath Plot 7C, 7D and Boulevard near Jalan Duta
The 75.5 acre development is set to be the country's largest exhibition centre and the city's latest international trade and exhibition district. KL Metropolis will house the Matrade Centre and other high profile mixed development components. The project will have an overall gross development value (GDV) of RM15 billion and the first of the three phases will include the Matrade Centre, office buildings, residential towers and a regional retail centre.
Peer Review Projects
Proposed Aman Mall, AlorSetar, Kedah DarulAman
The proposed shopping mall development consists of 8 storeys above ground and 2 storeys belowground. The gross floor area is approximately 192,931sq.m, where the retails area is approximately 135,212sq.m. We acted as a reviewer for the nominated Fire Safety Engineer and also assisted with the project submission to the authorities.
The Matrade development is a prestigious development situated within the Kuala Lumpur metropolitan area. The development comprises of underground car parks, exhibition halls, a conference centre, voids connecting all above ground levels. The peer review is to provide comments on the specific areas of the report where fire safety is emphasized and further information are considered necessary or advisable for the Fire Engineering Analysis.
Parkson Store at Part of Groundand First Floor of 1 Borneo Hypermall, Kota Kinabalu
The store was previously designed with a Fire Engineering Performance Based Design approach and the review of the previous Fire Engineering Report was undertaken to assess if the refurbishment would require a reanalysis of the previous design to address changes due to the refurbishment. A reanalysis was undertaken and found that the existing smoke management system was still adequate.
Tiffani Kiara Condominium, Kuala Lumpur
A Due Diligence appraisal on the fire safety requirements and compliances of the Tiffani Kiara Condominium, Mont Kiara, Kuala Lumpur was undertaken against the Uniform Building By-Laws (UBBL). The study was conducted for the 3 level of basement carpark.
Other Relevant ProjectsThe expertise of LP&A's key personnel involved in other relevant projects includes the following:
- Pinnacle@Duxton, Singapore: Designed the fire protection requirements for the structural steel of the airlink bridges which connect all seven towers at levels 25 and 50 to not require additional passive fire protection (ie coatings) using fire engineering analytical techniques. The design solution was required to meet the stringent requirements laid out by the local authorities, the Fire Safety and Shelter Department of the Singapore Civil Defence Force.
- 140 William St, Melbourne: Developed systems model for the risk assessment of the building at 140 William Street in Melbourne for the effects of fire . This innovative concept, supported by full scale tests, demonstrated that use of unprotected steel beams could achieve high safety levels and exceed deemed-to-satisfy levels, provided measures proposed in the assessment were undertaken. This was the first known alternative solution for the use of unprotected steel in a high-rise office building in Australia.
- Greenhouse‘Wall’ Atrium, Docklands: Proposed a unique smoke management strategy to achieve acceptable levels of air flow for a narrow ‘wall-type’ atrium which extends across the long side of the building north face and forms a continuum space with all floor levels in the 8-storey office building. The unique atrium configuration facilitated the achievement of the first 6 Star Green Star certified commercial office design and the first completed 6 Star new building to be offered for lease in a city location within the Australian market.
- Fire and Life Safety strategy study for the North South Bypass Tunnel and Station design in Brisbane, Queensland
- Fire and Life Safety strategy study for the underwater Limerick tunnel in Ireland
- Fire and Life Safety strategy study for the Mafraq Interchange tunnels in Abu Dhabi
- Applied the use of risk analysis techniques for the assessment of proposed fire safety systems in the Parramatta Rail Link in Sydney tunnel to demonstrate achievement of fire safety to world standards.
- Assess the fire risk of carriageways proposed for the high speed rail and the potential fire threats resulting from baggage fire loads for the High Speed Rail project in Taiwan
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